Monday, June 27, 2011

Childhood development Overview

During childhood development, one type of conduct which is characteristically seen is op positional behavior. Op positional behavior is expressed through disobedient, markedly defiant language, tendency to argue with the parents, or simply ignores the parents' word. It is most frequently seen in children below the age of ten years old. This kind of behavior is acceptable until it gets too extreme. The behavior would be classified as abnormal if it fits into the following criteria. "Behavior is unusual", e.g. the child likes to spend time purposefully annoying the parents. "Behavior is socially unacceptable or violates social norm", e.g. the child does not obey the teacher and throws book at her. (Cabrera et al 5-30)
If the shows the above conduct very often, this behavior might be considering abnormal or could be classify as a disorder. 

There are many paradigms which we can use to explain this oppositional behavior; the most common two are behavioral paradigm and family systems paradigm. Behavioral paradigm focuses on behaviors and learning process, whether the oppositional behavior has been reinforced or punished. Family systems paradigm focuses on the parents-child roles, parenting styles and the purpose of the oppositional behavior. Behavioral paradigm explains the oppositional behavior by learning and shaping process, which means that oppositional behavior can be accidentally reinforced, or the child might learn the oppositional from a role model. (Tamis-LeMonda 1806-20) Consider the following example; Michael's mother ask him to make his bed, he said "No.", mother say "But you have to.", then Michael begins to cry and yell "But I don't want to." mother can not stand the noise and finally give in. By given in, mother has give Michael a wrong positive reinforcement, because when Michael does not want to do something his mother ask him to do, he just have to say no and stick with it. His mother may not be aware of this reinforcement, and by occasionally gives in, this become a variable ratio reinforcement which gives the highest response rate (Michael saying no) and makes the oppositional behavior relatively difficult to extinguish. (Amato & Rivera 375-84)

Psychological Development
The early childhood education should be based on a sensory-motor type of learning for the pre-school age student. They simply are too young to sit still for extended periods of time and have information drilled and recited to them. This does nothing to expand their level of intelligence or develop their ability to problem-solve. At this age, the child is naturally curious and craves knowledge and they will be highly motivated when it comes to seeking out information independently. Piaget believed there are four periods of development. The first period is the Sensory-Motor Phase; this takes place from birth to about 1-1/2 years of age. This is when actions that are reflexive initially become a learned action ((Ryan et al 211-28)). In other words, a spontaneous action such as thumb-sucking will become a habit because the child finds it satisfies a desire. This is one of the first conditioned responses that a child learns. As the child gets a little older they begin to problem solve in a very rudimentary manner. For example if there is an object they want, they will find a way to get the object to them if they can’t physically move to it themselves. (Cabrera et al 5-30)

Emotional and social development
Attachment is a very important factor in childhood development many psychologists argue that, a child born into a loving and caring family home with both parents forms loving attachments and has a greater chance of being a well adjusted and happy adult, whereas some infants born into a dysfunctional family and who through no fault of their own find themselves due to their parents inability to look after them for whatever reason, e.g. drug addiction ill health etc in care this could result in these children having emotional problems and have difficulty forming a loving caring relationship in their own adult life. (Amato & Rivera 375-84) However there are always exceptions to the rule and many children overcome there emotional difficulties and earlier adversities and against all odds become well adjusted and successful adults even although they had such an unhappy start in life. Infants raised in isolation suffer in both their social and emotional development. Some of the evidence comes from children who were reared in orphanages that supplied adequate nutrition and bodily care but provided rather little in the way of sensory and social stimulation. (Tamis-LeMonda 1806-20) In
one such institution the infants were kept in cubicles for the first eight months or so as a precaution against infectious disease. Their brief contact with adults was restricted to the times when they were fed or changed. Feeding took place in the crib with a propped up bottle. There was little social give and take, little talk little play and little chance that the busy attendant would respond to any one baby's cry. When these infants were compared to others who were raised normally there were no differences for the first three or four months. Thereafter the groups diverged markedly. The under-stimulated infants showed serious impairments in their social and emotional development. (Cabrera et al 5-30)
The other paradigm we can use to analysis the oppositional behavior is family systems paradigm. This paradigm emphasis more on the parenting styles, how is the role between the parents and the child, and what is the purpose of the child having the oppositional behavior? For example; Kelly likes to spend her time purposefully irritating her mother, she always demand and yell at her mother when she wants something, and will not stop until she gets it, e.g. play dough, Kelly knows that her mother must spend time to make it first, and Kelly will play the dough for about ten minutes, then start to ask for something else. From the family system paradigm point of view, Kelly must have her reason for continuously annoy her mother; maybe her mother will not pay attention to her except when she demands for something. (Ryan et al 211-28) Family systems paradigm attributes the oppositional behavior mainly to the communication between the parents and the child; there might be lack of communication, lack of care and attention, and poor parenting style, children grow up in such poor parenting style may have a greater chance to develop more serious conduct disorders which is characterized by aggressive and more violent behaviors, such behaviors might include; being cruel to animals, deliberately try to aggravate others, or even criminal behaviors lighting fires, or stealing. (Ryan et al 211-28)
Oppositional behavior is when child refuse of defy parents' rules and requests, this might be passive or active, e.g. verbally saying "no" or finding ways to annoy others. But this behavior is more likely to be seen in the house with parents, not so common in public areas such as school and with other adults. If the behavior gets too extreme, it might become abnormal, such as oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder. (Cabrera et al 1190-1207)

From the behavior paradigm point of view, reinforcement of correct behavior is the most important factor in the development of normal child behavior. If the wrong behavior is reinforced, the child is more likely to be engaged in oppositional behavior. The family system paradigm emphasis on the quality of parenting style, when the child has been treaded by poor parenting style, there is a greater chance the child would develop a more abnormal behavior. The treatment options for the oppositional behavior includes parenting style training, family therapy which helps to improve the communication between family members, and consistency care of child which ensure the child has been look after in a healthy way. (Amato & Rivera 375-84)

No comments:

Post a Comment